Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) is the second-largest protected area in Tamil Nadu State behind only Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary in Erode. This reserve forms part of the inter-state (Kerala and Tamil Nadu) Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve. This part of Agastya Mala hills in the core of reserve is considered one of the five centres of biodiversity and endemism in India by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The Western Ghats, Agasthyamalai Sub-Cluster, including all of Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site. The Western Ghats is one of the 25 global hotspots and one of the 3 mega centres of endemism in India. Agasthiyarmalai which forms part of Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve is one of the 5 centres of plant diversity and endemism in India (IUCN). Among all the Tiger Reserves in the country, it is probably the richest from the biodiversity point of view. This is also described as ‘Super hotspot’ of Biodiversity. The floral diversity includes 2,254 Angiosperms which includes 448 endemic species, 58 Red- listed species, 601 Medicinal species, 90 species of wild relatives of the cultivated plants. There are 3 Gymnosperms and 156 Pteridophytes. The faunal diversity includes 47 species of fish, 47 species of amphibians, 89 species of reptiles, 337 species of Birds and 79 species of Mammals.